Demands from developing countries for richer nations to assist them pay for the damage attributable to climate change and fund the shift towards a low-carbon future look set to dominate the subsequent round of worldwide climate talks starting in Egypt on Sunday.

Despite repeated calls for more help, actual financing offered so far has come nowhere near the estimated $1 trillion-a-year needed.

Listed here are a few of the ways the cash can get to emerging markets.

State-backed development banks, which finance projects to further economic and social progress, have increased their concentrate on climate investments during the last yr.

The world’s biggest multilateral development banks increased their climate-related financing 24% to $82 billion in 2021 versus 2020 levels. Nearly two-thirds of the cash went to low and middle-income countries, the banks said in a recent report.

The 2021 figure, nevertheless, stays a great distance wanting the estimated finance needed by emerging markets, and this yr’s summit will likely include discussions of reforming development banks to speed up climate financing.

A report by the world’s biggest asset manager BlackRock last yr put the general need at $1 trillion a yr of private and non-private finance.

Arrange in 2010 to disperse climate finance, the multibillion-dollar Green Climate Fund is one in all the vehicles for handling the $100 billion-a-year pledged by wealthy nations to the poor.

The funds are supposed to fuel the transition to scrub energy and fund projects to assist vulnerable countries adapt to a hotter world. But wealthy countries’ failure to fulfill a 2020 deadline for producing that funding in full angered many at COP26 and can be a key bone of contention in Egypt.

In 2020, wealthy countries provided $83.3 billion – falling $16.7 billion wanting the goal, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) said earlier this yr. Wealthy nations say they can be paying the total $100 billion by 2023.

In Egypt, the talks will address setting a fair higher annual goal from 2025.

Climate Investment Funds (CIF) is one other influential multilateral investor which helps low and middle income countries adapt to and mitigate climate change.

Since 2008 it has supported greater than 370 projects in 72 countries, using funds from donor governments and the private sector.

It’s CIF’s work to finance climate adaptation – helping countries and communities live with and adapt to the results of climate change – that is probably most significant for this yr’s COP27.

While $46 billion of adaptation finance was delivered in 2019-2020, in accordance with think tank Climate Policy Initiative (CPI), that is only a tiny fraction of the $340 billion needed annually for adaptation in developing countries by 2030, as estimated by the U.N. Barriers to investment include an absence of common impact metrics, perceived lower returns and highly localized projects.

Blended finance, which seeks to encourage private investors into riskier projects by mixing it with money from concessional sources equivalent to development finance institutions, is seen as a solution to scale finance to emerging markets.

Nonetheless, climate-related flows fell to $14 billion in 2019-2021 from $36.5 billion between 2016-2018, a 60% decrease, in accordance with recent report by data tracker Convergence.

Egypt has made the difficulty of providing finance for “loss and damage,” – climate-related destruction to homes, infrastructure and livelihoods within the poorest countries which have contributed least to global warming – a key focus for this yr’s summit.

It can be the primary time the difficulty has been added to the formal agenda, as wealthy countries have historically resisted making a funding mechanism that would suggest liability for climate damages.

The US and European Union remain wary of making a special L&D fund, though, with Washington preferring to make use of other pots of cash to assist, in addition to reforming multilateral development banks so that they can provide more help.

Developed market countries have lent billions of dollars to emerging market countries that could possibly be written off, written down or repaid under more climate-friendly terms. While not a direct money transfer, such debt forgiveness could, for instance, include requirements for safeguarding natural resources.

Governments see so-called debt-for-nature swaps as a solution to spur motion on climate change, help the natural environment and support green growth within the developing world.

In a bid to assist conserve a few of the world’s most vulnerable marine ecosystems, Belize last yr swapped a promise to guard the northern hemisphere’s biggest barrier reef for much-needed debt relief.

But examples of debt forgiveness linked to environmental commitments remain rare and progress on striking recent deals has proven slow.

Many emerging market countries are also pinning their hopes on scaling up the still nascent marketplace for carbon credits, each between nation states and between countries and firms, that are keen to offset a few of their carbon emissions.

A credit could possibly be generated by, for instance, protecting a rainforest from being cut down, or by committing to rehabilitate degraded land.

While some campaigners have criticized the practice for what they see as enabling firms to avoid making hard decisions to stop emitting in the primary place, the market could provide a way for cash-poor but nature-rich countries to boost revenues.

The developed world has pledged to pay developing countries directly to assist them retire dirtier fuels equivalent to coal-fired power.

Climate Investment Funds said last month it will allocate $1 billion to assist South Africa and Indonesia move away from coal to scrub power.

Donors last yr also pledged $8.5 billion to speed up South Africa’s transition to renewable energy, mostly in the shape of concessional loans.

Negotiators are racing to conclude the deal before COP 27 begins, in what they hope could function a model for other emerging economies.

The G20 group of the world’s biggest economies said in 2021 it was seeking to boost vulnerable countries’ access to so-called Special Drawing Rights, or SDRs.

These are reserve assets available in emergencies and issued by the International Monetary Fund.

Nonetheless, the IMF said earlier this yr it was not actively considering the creation of recent SDRs.

The IMF in August 2021 created and issued $650 billion in SDR assets to member countries to help their recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. Officials say most countries still hold these assets as reserves.

(Reporting by Tommy Reggiori Wilkes and Virginia Furness; Editing by Frank Jack Daniel)


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